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Original ArticlesTransformational Generative Linguistics Movement Before Chomsky: Nahiv
Yusuf Avcı & Filiz Çalık
pp. 1 - 17 | DOI: 10.29329/ijler.2020.243.1
The transformational generative grammar theory is one of the linguistic theories that caused fundamental changes in linguistics since 1950s. This theory is based on the themes: deep structure and surface structure. Chomsky, who introduced the transformational generative grammar, explained the language with processes in mind in 1950s by including mind processes into linguistics. He clarifies the concept of deep structure in mind processes. He aims to emphasize the thought aspect in language by deep structure. This research intends to reveal that the theory of Chomsky depending on the mind processes and explained as the thought aspect in language: deep structure indeed dates back before the 1950s. Within this context, Nahiv as one of the works of Fıtrat is analysed. As a linguist Fıtrat displays the deep structure by establishing a relationship between the mind and language and drives the semantics forward. This research indicates the similarities between the deep structures of Fıtrat (in Nahiv) and Chomsky. This research is done by means of document analysis method as one of the qualitative research methods. Content analysis method that is one of the data analysis methods is used. Similarities between the deep structures of Fıtrat’s and Chomsky’s are identified. As a result of the study, it is proved that the deep structure which constitutes the fundamentals of transformational generative grammar theory is introduced before the 1950s and this work of Fıtrat has already been designed in the transformational generative grammar system.
Keywords: Transformational Generative Grammar Theory, Chomsky, Fıtrat, Nahiv, Deep Structure, Surface Structure, Mind.
The Relationship Between Character and Place in The Novel Called “Father Goriot” of Honore De Balzac
Necmiye Ayşim Parlakyıldız
pp. 18 - 28 | DOI: 10.29329/ijler.2020.243.2
It can be said that social problems which are old as well as history of humanity, and penetrate every span of the ground, and all eras easily present their images in the literature. Starting from the fact that the attitudes and behaviors enable to be a human and that thus the personality too is basically composed of them, it is indispensable that the person needs an environment where he/she can display behaviors arising from his/her mood. Even if the novel has a fictional structure, it narrates tel quel grief and happiness that the life contains in itself. For this, the novel needs characters, time and place. Even so the events are fictional, the novel may only narrate them like this. The place is a complicated structure which contains all concrete and abstract things within itself and, maybe for this reason, is a fact that the human mostly coincides in comparison to “time” and can easily internalize with himself/herself. Therefore, the relationship between character and place manifests itself to us on all occasions. In brief, the concept of “place” cannot be separately discussed by isolating socio-psychological, ideological and economic dimensions of humankind. In this study, it will be researched the relationship between character and place in the famous novel called “Father Goriot” of Honoré de Balzac who is a great author of 19th century, leaves his mark on his age, and is a classic writer as well as his works that already become classic.
Keywords: Honoré de Balzac, father Goriot, place, character, fiction.
Teaching Turkish in Belarus
pp. 29 - 40 | DOI: 10.29329/ijler.2020.243.3
Belarus is even though geographically far away to our country; it is a state with which Turkey has relations in recent history and maintains this relation in a positive atmosphere. The history of Belarus, which was once a vassal of the Golden Horde State, bears the traces of the struggle between Lithuania, Poland and Russia. The Belarus which has origin mainly from the north was forced to knuckle under the Grand Duchy of Lithuania in the 14th century after the 13th century Tatar invasion. Poles seized the Belarus in 1572. At the end of 1654 it was corporated into the territory of the Russian Tsar and became one of the republics of the Soviet Union (USSR) by the the Bolshevik Revolution (Panov, 2012). The White Russian aristocrats who supported the White Army during the Bolshevik Revolution came to Istanbul following the invasion of the Red Army and lived and sympathized with the Turks for a while. With the dissolution of the Soviet USSR in 1991, Turkey was the first country to recognize Belarus and then very important diplomatic relations were established between these countries. This situation led to an increased interest towards Turkey and Turkish language. Turkish language started to be offered as an elective and first language course within the universities. In this study, the teaching of Turkish language in Belarus in the years 1995-2019 will be examined and suggestions will be made on what can be done to improve Turkish in the future of Belarus.
Keywords: Belarus, Turkey, Teaching Turkish.
Integrated Knowledge in The Pre-Islamic Era:"Anwa'" Meteorologıcal Observations and Rain's Prediction as a Model
Omar Abdallah Ahmad Alfajjawi
pp. 41 - 49 | DOI: 10.29329/ijler.2020.243.4
Some scholars are still thinking that Arabs in Pre-Islamic era were immersed in ignorance, and they had no knowledge and sciences to help them wade through their tough life. Those scholars even believe that Pre-Islamic Arabs confined themselves with a life of passiveness, negativity and nihilism. This paper aims to demonstrate a scientific refutation of the above allegation by proving that Arabs were dealing at high level with every facet of their environment. The researcher will specify his defense of this case, by taking one issue as a model which is The Rain and its predictions. Abundant poems have mentioned rain and rainfalls in their odes. Moreover, in the documentation era, a lot of books have been authored and appeared, which are called "Anwa'“; i.e. meteorological observations. Some of such books are published nowadays, while many are still kept as manuscripts or have been lost. I concluded that Arabs have dealt with the predictions of rains and established rubrics in exploring the rainy clouds. They knew the times of rainfalls by the clouds' colors and lightening. In addition, there were persons and tribes who were the most knowing in this regard. Another conclusion in this paper, worth mentioning is that Arabs have achieved integrated Knowledge, and this paper represents a response to those who defame the Pre-Islamic Era and its people as being satisfied with eloquence, orations and poets. Furthermore, I found out that Arabs have linked up with other countries and benefited from their knowledge and was not isolated in the Arabic Peninsula.
Keywords: Pre-Islamic era, Integrated Knowledge, Anwa, Meteorological Observations.
The Two-Part Simple Structure of the Arabıc Nominal Sentence a Rhetorıcal Functional Study in Altaqhabun Quranic Sura
Sager Khalaf Awad Alshabany
pp. 50 - 72 | DOI: 10.29329/ijler.2020.243.5
The current study deals with the basic elements of the sentence structure represented by the subject and the predicate. It tries to focus on the simple clausal structure and on the sentence emerging from that structure. This includes the status of each sentence with regard to preposing and postposing. The study also studies declaring and hiding the functions of these structures side by side with the other parts of the nominal sentenc as far as preposing and postposing are concerned. In addition, this study states the benefit of the rhetorical and functional value of that structure as it is pointed out by the theory of formulation created by Al-Jurjani. Al-Taghabun Qur’anic Sura is chosen for the practical analysis in this study. It is based on underlying the sentences in this Sura, then analyzing the rhetorical functions from the Glorious Quran contexts included in these sentences
Keywords: Nominal Adjustment, subject, predicate, At –Taghabun chapter (surah).
Significance of Miniaturization of the Knowledgeable Mentioned in The Holy Qur’an
Raja Abdul Rahim Khashea Al-Rawi
pp. 73 - 85 | DOI: 10.29329/ijler.2020.243.6
Miniaturization is a morphological phenomenon that is commonly used in the Arabic language according to certain conditions and limited formulas, and it is one of the important topics that linguists and grammarians alike need, and miniaturization is one of the Arab linguistic means by which they express the meanings they refer to with briefness and abbreviation. The research aimed to clarify the semantic meanings of the miniaturization form known to the Arabs through the knowledgeable that were mentioned in a reduced form in the Holy Qur’an, which are five knowledgeables mentioned in the Qur’an as follows: The flags of the prophets and messengers, namely: Solomon، Shuaib. B Flags of the Righteous: Azir. C flags of the people: Quraysh. D flags of places: nostalgia. It is noticeable on these terms that they all came to one weight which is (effective), and did not indicate the humiliation that is the most prominent meanings of miniaturization, but other indications and meanings emerged, most notably the existence of the word within the Quranic context.
Keywords: Miniaturization, Significance, Flags, The Noble Qur’an.
“Türkçe Öğreniyorum” Course Book’s Values
Fahri Temizyürek & Muhammed Eyyüp Sallabaş
pp. 86 - 99 | DOI: 10.29329/ijler.2020.243.7
While Turkish is spoken as one of the biggest languages in the world in a wide geography, it is tried to be learned in many parts of the world with an increasing interest. Although many materials are used in teaching Turkish as a foreign language, teaching sets can be considered as the main source used by teachers as an indispensable element. The indispensable element of the teaching sets prepared for teaching Turkish to foreigners is the texts. In the texts to be included in the sets, the first qualification sought is the suitability of the text to the course level, and on the other hand, these texts are expected to reflect the Turkish culture and values. Given that schools are structures that teach not only knowledge but values, Turkish teaching sets to be prepared especially for young age groups should include texts that will mediate value teaching. In this study, the values in the Turkce Ogreniyorum set prepared by Yunus Emre Institute to teach Turkish to young age groups were examined. As a result of this study prepared in qualitative research design, the texts in the Türkçe Öğreniyorum set; It has been determined that it concentrates in love and friendship values. On the other hand, the values of charity, responsibility, patriotism, self-control, respect, justice, honesty and patience have not been found in the books.
Keywords: Turkish Education, Teaching Turkish to Foreigners, Value, Values Education, Textbook.