|  e-ISSN: 2717-6886

Volume 5 Issue 1 (April 2023)

Issue Information

Issue Information

Issue Information

pp. i - vi   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijler.2023.590


Issue Information

Keywords: Issue Information

Original Articles

Turkish Teachers' Digital Fluency Skills and Their Attitudes Towards Distance Education

Hatice Çetinkaya & Ünzüle Ulus Avcı

pp. 1 - 24   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijler.2023.590.1


The aim of this study is to examine Turkish teachers' digital fluency skills and their attitudes towards distance education in terms of various variables. The population of the study, which was designed in the relational model, consists of secondary schools in Şahinbey, Şehitkamil and Nizip districts of Gaziantep province in 2022-2023, and the sample consists of 361 Turkish teachers selected by simple random sampling method among these secondary schools. In the analysis of the data, descriptive statistics of the variables were calculated and teachers' digital fluency skills and attitudes towards distance education were analysed according to gender, age, professional seniority and daily digital tool usage time variables. The results of the analyses showed that teachers' perceptions of digital fluency and attitudes towards distance education were partially at a high level. Teachers' digital fluency skills differ according to gender and age variables, while their attitudes towards distance education differ according to gender, age, professional seniority and daily digital tool usage time. There is a moderate positive relationship between digital fluency and attitude towards distance education. In addition, digital fluency skills are a significant predictor of teachers' attitudes towards distance education.

Keywords: Digital fluency, distance education, attitude, secondary school, Turkish teacher

The Role of L1 in EFL and ESL Classes: A Literature Review

Burcu Karafil & Özlem Uysal Ilbay

pp. 25 - 45   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijler.2023.590.2


The use of the first language (L1) in an English as a Foreign Language (EFL) and English as a Second Language (ESL) classroom can serve various purposes to facilitate language learning. Accordingly, the role of L1 in EFL and ESL classes has been debated in the history of English Language Teaching (ELT) and Second Language Acquisition (SLA) for many decades. However, employing L1 as a teaching tool in language classrooms is often discouraged. This article aims to explore the role of L1 in EFL and ESL education, drawing upon an extensive body of empirical evidence. It seeks to illustrate how teachers can strategically leverage learners’ L1 as a pedagogical resource within the classroom setting, as well as explore the different functions that L1 can serve or can potentially serve in language classrooms. Additionally, the study briefly addresses the concerns raised by researchers regarding the potential negative impacts of using L1.

Keywords: L1 use, EFL classes, ESL classes, Language learning

A Novel Tourism Approach: Child Tourism and Living Cultural Heritage  

Sunay Akkaya

pp. 46 - 55   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijler.2023.590.3


The tourism sector is commonly designed as a domain exclusive to adults. As a result, thematic classifications such as 'religious tourism, gastronomy tourism,' etc., are observed to be constructed and implemented with a tourism understanding aimed at adults. However, in Turkey, there is no tourism model based on the living cultural heritage that is designed specifically for children travelling with adults. This study aims to create space for children in the tourism sector in Turkey and contribute to the establishment of thematic spaces in cities, such as tales, narratives, children's activities, riddles, and traditional folk theatre, which are part of the cultural heritage that is still alive. In this context, data related to children, tourism, and cultural heritage from different countries around the world have been accessed via the internet. The document analysis method has been applied to obtain the related data. It has been observed that certain countries, especially Germany, have explored the relationship between child-family, cultural heritage, and tourism. Consequently, it is believed that the construction of children's spaces and areas in cities based on the relationship between child-living cultural heritage and tourism will bring innovation and diversity to the tourism sector in Turkey, resulting in the emergence of child-themed cities.

Keywords: Child tourism, cultural tourism, city, cultural heritage.